Aircraft Structural Repair Manuals

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Aircraft Structural Repair Manuals

The engineering drawing for the composite repairs was integrated into the SRM. The NDT procedure for bonded composite doublers (ultrasonic resonance technique) was also included in the Boeing NDT Standard Practices Manual. Finally, a set of training classes are being developed to safely integrate composite doubler technology into the commercial maintenance depots. The classes will cover all aspects of design, analysis, installation, quality control and in-service inspection. View chapter Purchase book Read full chapter URL: Nondestructive Inspection and Repair: Because Things Do Not Always Go As Planned F.C. Campbell, in Manufacturing Processes for Advanced Composites, 2004 13.7 Repair All repairs of composite or bonded assemblies should be conducted per the specific instructions outlined in the Structural Repair Manual (SRM) or Technical Order (TO) for the aircraft. If the damage exceeds the limits specified in the manual, it is imperative that a qualified stress engineer approves the repair procedure. All personnel conducting structural repairs should be trained and certified in the repair procedure. The instructions in the repair manual must be followed to the letter. A repair that is done incorrectly can often result in a second more extensive and complicated repair. Repairs can be categorized as fill, injection, bolted or bonded repairs. Simple fill repairs ( Fig. 17 ) are conducted with paste adhesives to repair non-structural damage such as minor scratches, gouges, nicks and dings. Injection repairs use low-viscosity adhesives that are injected into composite delaminations or adhesive unbonds. Bolted repairs are usually done on thick highly loaded composite laminates while bonded repairs are often required for thin skin honeycomb assemblies. Like NDI, the literature on composite repair is quite extensive. An excellent in-depth treatment of repair technology can be found in Ref. 6. Fig. 17.

Typical Composite Repairs View chapter Purchase book Read full chapter URL: Repairing composites F. Collombet,. R. Thevenin, in Advances in Composites Manufacturing and Process Design, 2015 10.1 Introduction “In-field” repair of composite primary principal structures is a very strategic issue for the aeronautical industry. Obviously, whatever the material (metallic or composite), the Structural Repair Manual (SRM) does not cover all repairs. A view of A340-541 after a tail strike (MSN 608) of Emirate Company for Flight EK-407 is shown in Figure 10.1 (left) with no injuries and no fatalities. The incident occurred on March 20, 2009. Even if a structural repair had been defined and validated by Airbus experts, Emirate Company decided to replace all damaged parts. A view of B787-8 after a fire under the crown in front of the vertical tail fin of an Ethiopian Airlines aircraft in Heathrow Airport (UK) is shown in Figure 10.1 (right) with no injuries and no fatalities. These two costs do not include grounding costs, which are really huge. Everything needs to be controlled and approved by certification authorities. The requirements must be accepted worldwide by companies and certified by airworthiness authorities, which include the US Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) as well as the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA). Obviously, the development and production of unitary complex primary composite structure as quickly as possible is a great challenge. Composite solutions need to be considered with real “industrial” variabilities and with a continuous link between all scales (from microscale to structure scale). A definition of the state of the field is mandatory for “in-field” repairs of composite primary principal structures. View chapter Purchase book Read full chapter URL: Repair of damaged aerospace composite structures E. Archer, A. McIlhagger, in Polymer Composites in the Aerospace Industry, 2015 14.

6 Conclusion and future trends Regarding the current composite airframes, Boeing claim their rapid composite repair technique for the 787 offers temporary repair capability to get an airplane flying again quickly, despite minor damage that might ground an aluminium airplane. Looking to the future, EADS Innovation has been working on automation that might eventually carry out an entire repair cycle encompassing damage detection, surface preparation, repair patch creation, patch application and finally quality assurance checking. Meanwhile, the German Aerospace Research Centre DLR has been investigating the automation of resin-infused repairs. The aim is to develop scarf repair capability including damage removal by computer-controlled milling, impregnation of a dry preform laid into an excised site, and subsequent cure. DLR claims the method is particularly appropriate for curved areas, reducing complexity and avoiding the need to produce special tooling. Laser specialists cleanLASER and SLCR, also in Germany, are separately working on systems to prepare repair sites. Looking beyond state of the art, research on structural health monitors using techniques such as embedded fibre optic strain sensing and self-healing composites using microvascular systems of repair networks have been demonstrated. Whatever the future holds, the approach for the composite structure design teams needs to be based upon input and knowledge gained from a working relationship established with the airline maintenance personnel. This can be accomplished through repair workshops, or inquiries, involving airline and OEM customer support personnel, engineering personnel and involvement with the Commercial Aircraft Composite Repair Committee (CACRC). CACRC meets twice per year, under the auspices of the SAE International, alternating between Europe and North America. The remit is to address issues experienced by aircraft operators when maintaining composite components on commercial aircraft.

Delegates are drawn from airlines, OEMs, regulatory authorities, material suppliers and maintenance and repair organisations. View chapter Purchase book Read full chapter URL: Repair of metallic airframe components using fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites A.A. Baker, in Rehabilitation of Metallic Civil Infrastructure Using Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) Composites, 2014 2.1 Introduction Airframe structures must be repaired or replaced when service damage results, or has the potential to result, in the residual strength being reduced below an acceptable level for flight safety. The most prevalent forms of service damage in aging metallic airframe components are cracks and corrosion. The availability of efficient, rapid and cost-effective means of making repairs is a very important economic requirement for both military and civil aircraft. Repairs to significant damage generally involve the attachment of a reinforcing metallic patch or doubler over the damaged region. The aim is to restore mechanical properties to the original design specifications, including: residual strength, stiffness, fatigue resistance and damage tolerance. 1 The method of attaching the repair patch prescribed in the Structural Repair Manual (SRM) for the aircraft uses bolts or rivets. Figure 2.1a is a schematic of a typical mechanically fastened repair, for example to a wing skin. Although these SRM repair procedures are generally effective, they can have limited fatigue lives, especially for repairs to relatively thick, highly loaded primary structure; they are also damaging in that they require a large number of extra fastener holes. The purpose of this chapter is to show that application of a fibre composite patch by structural adhesive bonding over the defective region, as illustrated in Fig. 2.1b, can provide a far more efficient and cost-effective repair as well as being much less damaging, fatigue prone and intrusive to the structure.

This chapter discusses the repair of metallic aircraft structure with adhesively bonded fibre-reinforced composites, mainly from an Australian perspective. Details are then provided on the technology for applying the reinforcing patches to the structure, especially the critical issue of surface treatment for durable adhesive bonding. The design of patch repairs is then discussed, mainly from the perspective of estimation of stress intensity in the patched crack, including some experimental confirmation of an analytical model. The future challenge in the certification of bonded repairs for flight-critical applications is discussed, and a proposal is made on how to meet this challenge. This is based on the testing of representative joints to obtain material allowables for the patch system and the use of proof testing or structural-health monitoring to validate the through-life integrity of the applied patch. Finally, two applications, one USAF and the other Australian, are briefly described followed by a conclusion on limitations and lessons learned. This chapter lists the scope of bonded repairs and reinforcements—some applications are listed in the appendix. Important materials, processes and design issues are presented, based on Australian approaches. Finally, key issues are addressed with the focus on adhesive bond structural integrity for through-life management of repairs. Structural modifications to airframe structures are frequently made either to repair regions damaged by fatigue cracking or to extend fatigue life by reducing stresses in prospective regions of cracking. With traditional repairs a metallic patch or doubler is attached to the parent structure using bolts or rivets after removal of the cracked region. The aim is to restore mechanical properties, including: residual strength, stiffness, fatigue resistance and damage tolerance to an acceptable level.

When repairing cracks, the method for attaching the repair patch generally prescribed in the aircraft's structural repair manual (SRM) uses bolts or rivets. Fig. 1 A shows a schematic of a typical mechanically fastened repair recommended, for example, for a wing skin suffering fatigue cracks. Prior to application of the reinforcement the defect—typically a crack—is removed to leave round or elliptical shaped smooth-edged cut-out. Fig. 1. Comparison between (A) mechanically fastened and (B) bonded repairs. Well designed and correctly implemented these SRM repair procedures are effective in the short term, however, they may have limited fatigue life due to the development of high stresses at the new fastener holes. Some problems associated with mechanical repairs are listed in Fig. 1 A include the danger of inadvertent damage to the internal structure, wiring and hydraulic lines. An alternative approach is to apply the repair patch over the defective region using structural adhesive bonding as illustrated in Fig. 1 B. This approach is far more efficient in transferring loads from the parent structure into the patch or reinforcement, and does not cause damage to the parent structure because there is no requirement for fastener holes. This approach does not require removal of the crack; this is an important advantage because in many cases removal of the crack is difficult or not feasible. To demonstrate the advantages of using bonded repairs for crack repair, fatigue tests were performed on patched edge-notched 2024 T3 aluminium alloy panels, shown inset with details in Fig. 2 A and B. The total thickness of the aluminium patches, on both sides, was equal to the thickness of the metal. The plotted points show crack growth. Therefore, inspection techniques (NDI) using eddy currents can be used to detect crack growth—as shown by the plotted points in Fig. 2. Fig.

2 A shows that the mechanically attached metallic patch provides poor reinforcing efficiency since there is only a very slight reduction in crack growth rate. Also, as seen in Fig. 2, once the crack emerges from under the patch it grows very rapidly. The metallic patch can appear to be effective in some cases if the crack arrests temporarily in a fastener hole. In this chapter the scope of bonded repairs and reinforcements, with examples of applications, is first discussed very briefly. Then key materials and process and design issues are discussed, focusing on Australian approaches. Finally, the discussion focuses on the key issue of how to access adhesive bond structural integrity, especially in relation to the through-life management of repairs. View chapter Purchase book Read full chapter URL: Surface Treatment and Repair Bonding Andrew N. Rider,. James J. Mazza, in Aircraft Sustainment and Repair, 2018 1.4 Standards and Environments for Adhesive Bonding The facilities, environment, conditions, skills and techniques available for adhesive bonding vary widely. However, it must be emphasised that the quality and long-term performance of an adhesive bond relies on attention to standards and the skill of the technician, together with controls over processes and procedures for all bonding situations. 1.4.1 Bond Integrity and Standards Adhesively bonded components are manufactured, and bonded repairs are conducted, without the benefit of a comprehensive set of effective nondestructive process control tests or techniques to fully assess the through-life integrity of the bonded product. Standard nondestructive inspection (NDI) techniques may be able to detect physical defects leading to voids or airgaps in bondlines, but they cannot detect weak bonds or bonds that may potentially weaken in service.

In the meantime, the quality and integrity of the bonded component will rely on a fully qualified bonding procedure, together with the assurance that the process was carried out correctly. Facilities located adjacent to operational airbases or in industrial environments need to have concern for the effect of hydrocarbon contamination. Facilities in tropical locations need special consideration for the effect of heat and high humidity. Factory manufacture uses specialised facilities and staff. The facilities will include vapour degreasing or alkaline cleaning, etching tanks, anodising tanks, jigs, autoclaves and appropriate environmental controls. Adhesives will be stored in freezers, and monitoring procedures will be in place. There is a well-trained workforce with skills maintained through production volumes, and highly developed inspection procedures are available. At the other extreme, field repairs are generally conducted with relatively unsophisticated facilities, minimal surface treatments, vacuum bag or reacted force pressurisation and little or no environmental control. The requirement for environmental controls, the attention to bonding procedure detail and the need for staff training and supervision are of particular concern. If the use of training measures can be combined with regular monitoring, then any deviation in quality of repairs or bonding operations being undertaken can be identified. Depot-level repairs are conducted with facilities and staff skills that vary considerably. Some depots have almost factory-level facilities and high level of staff skill. Other depots are capable of only low-level bonded repairs and are little removed from a field repair capability. Laboratory experiments are designed to establish knowledge and principles. It is easy to overlook important detail from factory or field experience since most laboratories are held to close environmental tolerances and do not resemble the workshop environment. 1.4.

3 Constraints for On-Aircraft Repairs On-aircraft repairs impose additional constraints on processes and procedures. The considerations include: accessibility of the area, limitations in the use of corrosive chemicals, adequacy of environmental controls and constraints on the tools for pressurisation and heating of the bond during cure. Safety, health and environmental issues are more demanding for on-aircraft bonding since it is harder to control, contain and clean-up hazardous chemicals. Constraints on the use of electrical power on fuelled aircraft, or those with inadequately purged fuel tanks, can restrict the range of treatment and bonding methods available. The surrounding aircraft structure imposes constraints on the choice of surface preparation, heating arrangements and pressurisation tools. View chapter Purchase book Read full chapter URL: Type Certification Filippo De Florio, in Airworthiness (Second Edition), 2011 5.7 Repairs 5.7.1 Introduction An aircraft is subject to damages that have to be repaired. Because a repair normally involves a change of configuration, it is considered as a change to the type design and consequently must be approved. There are types of damage that can be anticipated, so that the repair of this damage can be studied in advance. Manual and other Instructions for Continued Airworthiness (such as Manufacturer Structural Repair Manual ) are provided by the TCH for the aircraft operators and contain useful information for the development and approval of repairs. When these data are explicitly identified and approved, they may be used by the operators without further approval to cope with anticipated in-service problems arising from normal usage provided that they are used strictly for the purpose for which they have been developed. A summary of these requirements is given below. 5.7.2.

1 Classification of repairs A repair can be “major” or “minor” and the classification must be made in accordance with the criteria applicable for a change in type design (see “Changes in type design” section in this chapter). Furthermore, repairs requiring reassessment and reevaluation of the original certification substantiation data to ensure that the aircraft still complies with all the relevant requirements are considered as major repairs. Repairs whose effects are considered to be minor and require minimal or no assessment of the original certification substantiation data to ensure that the aircraft still complies with all the relevant requirements are considered as minor. 5.7.2.2 Demonstration of capability An applicant for major repair design approval shall demonstrate its capability by holding a DOA issued by the Agency. Repair manuals are provided by the TCH for the aircraft operators and contain useful information for the development and approval of repairs. When these data are explicitly identified and approved, they may be used by the operators without further approval to cope with anticipated in-service problems arising from normal usage provided that they are used strictly for the purpose for which they have been developed. The answer is that major repairs can change the existing maintenance practices or inspection intervals. For example, major structural repairs may need more inspection. Repairs on static engine components could even influence the life limits of critical rotating parts. The person holding the inspection authorization or authority to approve the return to service is responsible for determining whether any changes are necessary to the existing product Instructions for Continued Airworthiness resulting from the major repair. 5.7.3 FAA repairs FAR 21 does not have a subpart dedicated to repairs.

FAR 1 defines a major alteration as an alteration not listed in the aircraft, aircraft engine, or propeller specifications that might appreciably affect weight, balance, structural strength, performance, power plant operation, flight characteristics, or other qualities affecting airworthiness or that is not done according to accepted practices or cannot be done by elementary operations. FAR 1 defines a major repair as a repair that, if improperly done, might appreciably affect weight, balance, structural strength, performance, power plant operation, flight characteristics, or other qualities affecting airworthiness, or that it is not done according to accepted practices or cannot be done through elementary operations. A minor repair is a repair other than a major repair. FAR 43 (Maintenance, Preventive Maintenance, Rebuilding, and Alteration) prescribes rules governing the maintenance, preventive maintenance, rebuilding, and alteration of any aircraft having a US airworthiness certificate, foreign-registered civil aircraft used in common carriage or carriage of mail under the provisions of FAR 121 or 135, and airframe, aircraft engines, propellers, appliances, and component parts of such aircraft. We will report an excerpt of Appendix A to FAR 43: major alterations, major repairs, and preventive maintenance. (1) Airframe major repairs. Repairs of the following parts of an engine and repairs of the following types are power plant major repairs. (i) Separation or disassembly of a crankcase or crankshaft of a reciprocating engine equipped with an integral supercharger; (ii) separation or disassembly of a crankcase or crankshaft of a reciprocating engine equipped with other than spur-type propeller reduction gearing; (iii) special repairs to structural engine parts by welding, plating, metalizing, or other methods. (3) Propeller major repairs. Repairs of the following types to appliances are appliance major repairs.

(i) Calibration and repair of instruments; (ii) calibration of radio equipment; (iii) rewinding the field coil of an electrical accessory; (iv) complete disassembly of complex hydraulic power valves; and (v) overhaul of pressure type carburetors, and pressure type fuel, oil and hydraulic pumps. FAR 145 (Repair Stations) prescribes the requirements for issuing repair station certificates and associated ratings to facilities for the maintenance and alteration of airframes, power plants, propellers, or appliances, and prescribes the general operating rules for the holders of those certificates and ratings. We can conclude that the FAA prescribes the rules for repairs in the same context as the rules for alteration and, more generally, in the frame of maintenance, an issue that is discussed in Chapter 9. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. We recommend you upgrade to a newer version of Internet Explorer or switch to a browser like Firefox or Chrome. If appropriate procedures for the damage found are not contained in the SRM then a specific Repair Scheme needs to be obtained from the aircraft manufacturer. Try Google site search or help us improve by submitting your definition. This information should not be considered complete, up to date, and is not intended to be used in place of a visit, consultation, or advice of a legal, medical, or any other professional. To browse Academia.edu and the wider internet faster and more securely, please take a few seconds to upgrade your browser. You can download the paper by clicking the button above. Register Trainee Login Course Provider Login Advertise your course Login as Trainee Forgot password. Login login or register with Google Linkedin Are you a member of Aviation Job Search. Login with your account Not a member. The course includes repair case studies that require the student to determine part identification, allowable damage limits, and detail metallic and composites repair options.

Students will be administered a written exam following lecture classes and practical assessments in classes. The minimum passing grade for all written exams shall be 75% and all grades shall be recorded in the individual’s training records. Aviation Job Search Terms and Conditions Privacy policy GDPR Contact Follow us on. All repairs, modifications and alterations to the Aircraft will have been accomplished in accordance with Manufacturer's Structural Repair Manual (or FAA-approved data supported by FAA Form 8110-3) for the Aircraft. In accordance with Article 23.7.7, permanently repair damage to the Aircraft that exceeds Manufacturer's limits and replace any non-flush structural patch repairs installed on the Aircraft with flush-type repairs, so long as the Manufacturer or the Manufacturer's Structural Repair Manual permits flush-type repairs on the portion of the Aircraft where the non-flush structural repairs were made. Doors will be free moving, correctly rigged and be fitted with serviceable seals, free from damage as defined by the Boeing Maintenance or Structural Repair Manual Limits. All rights reserved. View our Terms of Service and Privacy Policy. Aircraft Structure Repair Manual from instagram. SOAR Boeing 737-400 Repair, Subang, Malaysia. Chargeuse sur chenilles. Aircraft Structure Repair Manual dropbox upload. Delta TechOps experienced engineers and AMTs can manage any airline fleet maintenance jobs: airframe, engine maintenance and more. This site has the highest level of secure. Aircraft Structure Repair Manual from cloud storage. Aircraft Structure Repair Manual Aircraft Structure Repair Manual PDF. Wheel Aircraft Structure Repair Manual these rates. Aircraft Structure Repair Manual from facebook. All times are GMT. Scraper 80 Pull Type Lp Miami Cushions Forward. Aircraft Structural Repair Training Courses 3 Course Recommendations For Aircraft Technicians Preparing to Repair Boeing Composite Structure (737-777).

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